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In Defence Lies Invincibility
EXTRACT Introduction: The Threat of ‘Social Engineering’ 

In today’s world, despite the saturated awareness via the media of threats to our security from terrorism, criminals, cyber attacks, there is a threat to organisations and individuals alike from psychological manipulation termed as  ‘Social Engineering’ All social engineering techniques are based upon Cognitive Biases, in other words specific elements of decision making. Jacques Marken (1845-1906) a Dutch Engineer first coined the term “Social Engineering" in the 1890s, in an article aimed at improving what was amiss in the social world.  Social Engineering is a form of Criminal fraud or theft by false pretense with the intentional deception of the victim which relies solely upon interacting with people and manipulating them to gain access to items or areas of security. While technological advances have made some kinds of fraud more difficult to commit, it has opened up all sorts of new opportunities for criminals. Even the very strongest security technology can be overcome by a clever social engineer that literally can talk their way into people giving up secure information.
         Phrased as ‘ Hacking the Human Psyche’ social engineering is generally defined as non-technical method of ‘intrusion’ relying mainly on human interaction, often involving manipulating people into breaking normal security procedures. In simple terms it relies on conning (known in the UK as ‘blagging’) people into giving up secure information or access into secure places. This is not a new threat as these techniques have changed little throughout history and is the methodology used for many years in the world of espionage.
        No matter what physical and technical security measures have been set up, the weakness always lies in the human element. To gain the confidence of a person, getting them to reveal information (personal banking details, network's security) relying on the natural helpfulness of people as well as their weaknesses. 

Extract - 'Security: A Brief History of Learning' 
The concept of providing safety and security is as old as man himself, estimated at about 200,000 years, with the first civilizations (Sumerians, Egyptians, Mayan, Chinese and Indus region) dating back some 6,000 years. Hiding in caves developed into building secure shelters, grouping together for greater safety, building outer walls, digging ditches to increase the protection or moving to higher ground for greater visibility and minimising accessibility. Examples of these great fortifications still exist today, there for us to admire and learn from:         
in India, is the fantastic and the largest Chittorgarh Fort, covering 700 acres atop a 590 foot hill, with towers and walls, a one-mile-long twisting road leads to seven gateways, each guarded by a tower and iron-spiked doors.
Konigstein Fortress or the Saxon Bastille is perched on a rocky hilltop near Dresden and overlooks the River Elbe. It's one of the largest fortresses in Europe, with the sandstone walls up to 137 feet tall and a surrounding rampart of nearly 6,000 feet.
Fort Murud-Janjira is built on a rock island in the Arabian Sea near the coastal village of Murud, built in the 15th century is reachable only via the sea and has 21 bastions (projecting fortifications). The main gate remains hidden until those approaching the fort come within less than 50 feet of the island.
Great Wall of China the worlds longest military defence stretches an incredible 13,171 miles (21,196.7 km )and constructed over a period of time starting in the 4th century BC and taking almost 2,000 years to complete
Bamburgh Castle,  Northumberland in the UK (below) built on a dolerite outcrop on the site of the ancient British 5th century fortification and constructed in the 11th century by the Normans.


Past civilizations have been and gone however there still exist reminders of their great achievements such as the Mayan temples in Mexico, Cuniform writing of the Sumerians (3,000 BC) and the Great Pyramid of Giza. This was the period of time known as the ‘Bronze Age’. The discovery of creating a stronger alloy by combining copper with tin brought the development of advanced weaponry. After a period of approximately 2,000 years Bronze was superseded by Iron and yet again  improved weapons, which also corresponded at the same time with the widespread development of writing and so the period of time known as “Pre-History’ became ‘History’. Mankind could now document information, chronicle historic events and daily life, share developments and educate, faster than ever before.

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